Julian II, the last pagan emperor, was a nephew of Constantine the Great. Julian II was raised in a Christian environment, but secretly studied paganism. He was also known as a philosopher and a writer. In A.D. 355, Emperor Constantius II appointed Julian II, his cousin, as Caesar in Gaul. When Constantius II died six years later, Julian II became emperor. Julian II died in 363 during a battle with Persians, possibly assassinated by a Christian in his own army.